Interesting caves have also formed throughout Kafa Biosphere Reserve as underground streams slowly erode the soft limestone and weather the rocks. The caves are located in dense forests, and near springs and rivers. The people of the ancient Kafa Kingdom set up their defense structures nearby caves to add to their protection from invading enemies. In more recent history, locals have used caves, such as Wolla Shoba Cave, as shelters during Italian occupation and as religious sites. Some caves have only recently been discovered suggesting that more undiscovered caves exist. Caves in the Biosphere Reserve are located at Hawulti, Abagipo, Boirita, Gurguto, Yeshay, Gachinga, Dosha, Tuga, Elelo, and Tage Keto.